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Find below some of the publications we have released using the data and information provided by you and our surveys!




Choi, Y., Jeong, E., & Park, M. (2022). Asian Americans’ parent-child conflict and racial discrimination may explain mental distress. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9(1), 18-26.



Despite being stereotyped as problem-free and high-achieving, Asian Americans are vulnerable to mental distress (e.g., depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide), according to the limited available studies. Ethnic subgroups also have more variable outcomes than the monolithic category, “Asians or Asian Americans,” may suggest; but even across communities, few utilize mental health care compared to other racial/ethnic groups. To illustrate the needed evidence, a longitudinal survey of Filipino and Korean Americans found that mental distress among young Asian Americans increased at an alarming rate during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Two prominent contextual factors, parent–child conflict and racial discrimination, explained the uptick in mental distress. The surge of anti-Asian discrimination since the COVID-19 pandemic requires anti-discrimination policy, while parent–child conflict requires working with families in a culturally competent way.


Park, M., Choi, Y., Yoo, B., Yasui, M., & Takeuchi, D. (2021). Racial Stereotypes and Asian American youth paradox. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(12), 2374-2393. (PMC9074757DOI 10.1007/s10964-021-01519-8


Asian Americans are simultaneously stereotyped as a perpetual foreigner and a model minority. This cross-sectional study of 308 Filipino American youth (mean age 18 years; 47% emerging adult; 72% U.S.-born; 57% female) and 340 Korean American youth (mean age 18 years; 39% emerging adult; 59% U.S.-born; 49% female) is the first to investigate both the direct and interactive effects of these seemingly opposite stereotypes on internalizing and externalizing outcomes, and how these relations differ by ethnicity, age group (adolescence vs. emerging adulthood), and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). The results confirm that the perpetual foreigner stereotype predicts more internalizing problems, whereas aspects of the model minority stereotype (i.e., achievement orientation and unrestricted mobility) had different effects by ethnicity. Those who deeply internalize the model minority stereotype were found to be particularly vulnerable. Furthermore, the interactive effects of these stereotypes were more prominent during emerging adulthood than in adolescence, regardless of ethnicity. These nuanced and complex mechanisms need to be thoroughly understood in order to develop appropriate and effective public health or school interventions that can support Asian American young people in dealing with the harmful effects of racial stereotypes.


Park, M., Choi, Y., Yasui, M., & Hedeker, D. (2021). Racial discrimination and the moderating effects of racial and ethnic socialization on mental health of Asian American youth. Child Development, 92(6), 2284-2298.

(PMC8932491) DOI 10.1111/cdev.13638


This study investigates trajectories of racial discrimination, racial and ethnic socialization (RES), and their interaction effects with social positions (nativity and gender) on mental health. A longitudinal study of 786 Filipino American (FA) and Korean American (KA) youth from the Midwestern United States (Mage.Wave1 = 15) confirmed that discrimination increased and significantly contributed to the upward trend of mental health distress, whereas the impact of RES differed by its type and by ethnicity. For example, promotion of mistrust and ethnic-heritage socialization were protective among U.S.-born FA youth, but for KA youth, preparation for bias was protective regardless of nativity and gender. This study highlights the importance of considering social positions to better understand the role of RES in youth psychological adjustment.


Choi, Y., Park, M., Lee, J., & Lee, M. (2020). Explaining Asian American youth paradox: Universal factors vs. Asian American family process among Filipino and Korean American youth. Family Process, 59(4), 1818-1836. (PMC9222425) DOI 10.1111/famp.12532


This study used longitudinal survey data of Filipino American and Korean American youth to examine ways in which universal factors (e.g., peer antisocial behaviors and parent-child conflict) and Asian American (AA) family process variables (e.g., gendered norms) independently and collectively predict grade point average (GPA), externalizing, and internalizing problems. We aimed to explain the "Asian American youth paradox" in which low externalizing problems and high GPA coexist with high internalizing problems. We found that universal factors were extensively predictive of youth problems and remained robust when AA family process was accounted for. AA family process also independently explained youth development and, in part, the AA youth paradox. For example, gendered norms increased mental distress. Academic controls did the opposite of what it is intended, that is, had a negative impact on GPA as well as other developmental domains. Family obligation, assessed by family-centered activities and helping out, was beneficial to both externalizing and internalizing youth outcomes. Parental implicit affection, one of the distinct traits of AA parenting, was beneficial, particularly for GPA. This study provided important empirical evidence that can guide cross-cultural parenting and meaningfully inform intervention programs for AA youth.

Woo, B., Maglalang, D., Ko, S., Park, M., Choi, Y., & Takeuchi, D. (2020). Racial discrimination, ethnic-racial socialization, and cultural identities among Asian American youths. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 26(4), 447-459. (PMC7483177) DOI 10.1037/cdp0000327



Objectives: This study investigates whether and how racial discrimination is associated with ethnic–racial socialization in the family and how distinct aspects of ethnic–racial socialization influence children’s ethnic and American identity among Filipino American and Korean American families.

Methods: The data are obtained from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Asian American Families Project (N = 1,580; 379 Filipino American youths and 377 parents, and 410 Korean American youths and 414 parents; MAGE of youths = 15.01). Using the bootstrapping and maximum likelihood with missing values approaches, we conducted path analyses to test the hypothesized associations concurrently and longitudinally for each ethnic group.

Results: Youth-reported racial discrimination was directly associated with weaker American identity, both concurrently and longitudinally. In concurrent models, racial discrimination experienced by both youth and parents was positively associated with youth-reported preparation for bias, which in turn was linked with stronger ethnic identity among Filipinos, whereas no indirect pathways reached statistical significance among Koreans. In longitudinal models, parent-reported discrimination was linked with higher levels of promotion of mistrust among both groups, which predicted weaker ethnic identity among Filipino youth but stronger American identity among Korean youth.

Conclusions: The present study highlights how exposure to racial discrimination may have a lasting influence in cultural identity development among Asian Americans and possibly through ethnic–racial socialization in the family, which might have been shaped by such experiences. Our results also underscore the importance of considering the experiences of both children and parents in studies of discrimination and ethnic–racial socialization.

Choi, Y., Park, M., Lee, J., Noh, S., & Takeuchi, D. (2020). Asian American mental health: Longitudinal trend and explanatory factors among Filipino and Korean Americans. SSM-Population Health, 10, 100542. (PMC6994703) DOI 10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100542


Objectives: This study examined a longitudinal trend of mental health among young Asian Americans during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood and investigated explanatory factors of the trend.

Method: We longitudinally followed a cohort of Filipino American and Korean American youth and their families in Midwest since 2014 (N = 1,574 in Wave 1). This study used three waves of youth data (n = 781, M AGE = 15 in W1).

Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation significantly increased among the samples between 2014 and 2018, which also became more serious in severity. Intergenerational cultural conflict in the family and the experience of racial discrimination significantly contributed to the upsurge of mental health distress. Conversely, a strong peer relationship and ethnic identity were critical resources suppressing both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation.

Conclusions: This study substantiated a troubling upward trend in mental health struggles among young Asian Americans and demonstrated a significant additive influence of culture and race/ethnicity on mental health beyond the normative influences of family process and peers. These key factors should be targeted in intervention to better serve Asian American young people who may mask their internal struggles.


Choi, Y., Lee, M., Lee, J., Park, M., Lee, S. Y., & Hahm, H. C. (2020). Disempowering parenting and mental health among Asian American youth: immigration and ethnicity. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 66, 101077.



Guided by the concept of ABCDG (Abusive, Burdening, Culturally Disjointed, Disengaged, and Gender Prescriptive) parenting, this study investigated how subdomains of disempowering parenting adversely influence young people's mental health, independently and collectively, using a large-scale longitudinal survey data of community samples among Filipino American (FA) and Korean American (KA) youth (MAGE = 15.01, N = 1580; 391 FA and 417 KA families). Regression results showed that the subdomains of disempowering parenting, while individually harmful, were differentially associated with mental health. For example, abusive and disengaged parenting and culturally disjointed parenting (a.k.a. intergenerational cultural conflict) were the most notably adverse subdomains and remained significant when all subdomains were accounted together. This study pinpoints specific aspects of disempowering parenting that may lead to mental distress among FA and KA youth and underscores a need for culturally tailored intervention programs that address the harms of disempowering parenting approaches.


Choi, Y., Park, M., Lee, J., Yasui, M., & Kim, T. (2018). Explicating acculturation strategies among Asian American youth: subtypes and correlates across Filipino and Korean Americans. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(10), 2181-2205. (PMC6286232) DOI 10.1007/s10964-018-0862-1



Acculturation strategy, a varying combination of heritage and mainstream cultural orientations and one of the significant determinants of youth development, has been understudied with Asian American youth and particularly at a subgroup-specific level. This study used person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation strategy subtypes among Filipino American and Korean American adolescents living in the Midwest. Associations between the subtypes and numerous correlates including demographics, family process and youth outcomes were also examined. Using large scale survey data (N=1,580; 379 Filipino American youth and 377 parents, and 410 Korean American youth and 414 parents; MAGE of youth=15.01), the study found three acculturation subtypes for Filipino American youth: High Assimilation with Ethnic Identity, Integrated Bicultural with Strongest Ethnic Identity, and Modest Bicultural with Strong Ethnic Identity; and three acculturation subtypes for Korean American youth: Separation, Integrated Bicultural, and Modest Bicultural with Strong Ethnic Identity. Both Filipino American and Korean American youth exhibited immersion in the host culture while retaining a strong heritage identity. Although bicultural strategies appear most favorable, the results varied by gender and ethnicity, e.g., integrated bicultural Filipino Americans, comprised of more girls, might do well at school but were at risk of poor mental health. Korean American separation, comprised of more boys, demonstrated a small but significant risk in family process and substance use behaviors that merits in-depth examination. The findings deepen the understanding of heterogeneous acculturation strategies among Asian American youth and provide implications for future research.

Choi, Y., Kim, T., Pekelnicky, D.D., Kim, K. & Kim, Y.S. (2017). Impact of youth cultural orientations on perception of family process and development among Korean Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 23(2), 244–257. (PMC5243931) DOI 10.1037/cdp0000093


Objectives: This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families, and how these family processes in turn predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables.

Methods: This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across two time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD=1.00). Using Structural Equation Modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes.

Results and Conclusions: Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one’s heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent-child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships.

Choi, Y. (2014). Moving forward: Asian Americans in the Discourse of Race and Social Problems. Race and Social Problems, Special Issue on “Asian Americans.” (NIHMSID#558848) DOI 10.1007/s12552-014-9113-6



“Asians don’t count.” I often hear this in discussions about whether Asian Americans are a legitimate racial and ethnic minority in the United States. Typical justifications for not counting Asian Americans are that they are too small in numbers and they are doing just fine and may in fact be doing better than whites. But as the papers in this special issue of Race and Social Problems reveal, these assumptions are simply not true.

Asian Americans are, first, no longer demographically ignorable. Asian Americans in the United States are fastest growing population, and their numbers are projected to double by 2050, reaching nearly 10 % of the US total population. Further, the popular “model minority” stereotype is not valid. More than two decades of research has firmly refuted the proposition, and yet it persists, with harmful consequences. The myth serves to exclude Asian Americans in the critical discourse on race and related social problems, including racial inequality, discrimination, and structural barriers that affect individuals and families. As a result, Asian Americans remain unrecognized, understudied, and underserved.


Choi, Y., Tan, K., Yasui, M., & Pekelnicky, D.D. (2014). Race-ethnicity and culture in the family and youth outcomes: Test of a path model with Korean American youth and parents. Race and Social Problems, Special Issue on “Asian Americans.” (NIHMSID#557629) DOI 10.1007/s12552-014-9111-8



This study examined the interplay of parental racial-ethnic socialization and youth multidimensional cultural orientations to investigate how they indirectly and directly influence youth depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors. Using data from the Korean American Families (KAF) Project (220 youths, 272 mothers, and 164 fathers, N =656), this study tested the relationships concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier youth outcomes. The main findings include that racial-ethnic socialization is significantly associated with mainstream and ethnic cultural orientation among youth, which in turn influences depressive symptoms (but not antisocial behaviors). More specifically, parental racial-ethnic identity and pride discourage youth mainstream orientation, whereas cultural socialization in the family, as perceived by youth, increases ethnic orientation. These findings suggest a varying impact of racial-ethnic socialization on the multidimensional cultural orientations of youth. Korean language proficiency of youth was most notably predictive of a decrease in the number of depressive symptoms concurrently, longitudinally, and after controlling for previous levels of depressive symptoms. English language proficiency was also associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms, implying a benefit of bilingualism.


Choi, Y., Kim, Y.S., Kim, S.Y., & Park, I.J.K. (2013). Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures. Asian American Journal of Psychology. Special Issue titled “Tiger Moms, Asian American Parenting, and Child/Adolescent Well-being in Diverse Contexts.”4(1), 19-29 (PMC3746991)



Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research.


Choi, Y., Kim, Y. S., Pekelnicky, D.D. & Kim, H. J. (2012). Preservation and modification of culture in family socialization: Development of parenting measures for Korean immigrant families. Asian American Journal of Psychology. (NIHMSID# 358897), (DOI) 10.1037/a0028772.



This study aims to describe the family socialization beliefs and practices of Korean immigrant parents through testing psychometric properties of several newly developed items and scales to assess the major components of the Korean traditional concept of family socialization, ga-jung-kyo-yuk. These new measures were examined for validity and reliability. The findings show that Korean immigrant parents largely preserve their traditional and core parenting values, while also showing meaningful, yet not very dramatic, signs of adopting new cultural traits. The results also suggest that the acculturative process may not be simply bilinear but may generate a new, unique and blended value and behavior set from the two (or more) cultures involved. Culturally appropriate practice requires not only further validation of existing knowledge with minority groups, but the development of a theoretical framework of family socialization that recognizes the cultural uniqueness of immigrant families.


Choi, Y., He, M., Herrenkohl, T., Catalano, R.F., Toumbourou, J.W. (2012). Multiple identification and risks: Examination of peer factors across multiracial and single-race youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 41(7), 847-862. (PMC22395776).



Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative and longitudinal sample of youth from Washington State (N = 1,760, mean age = 14.13, 50.9% girls). Of those in the sample, 225 youth self-identified as multiracial (12.8%), 1,259 as White (71.5%), 152 as Latino (8.6%), and 124 as Asian American (7.1%). Results show that multiracial youth have higher rates of violence and alcohol use than Whites and more marijuana use than Asian Americans. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and single-parent family status partly explained the higher rates of problem behaviors among multiracial youth. Peer risk factors of substance-using or antisocial friends were higher for multiracial youth than Whites, even after socioeconomic variables were accounted for, demonstrating a higher rate of peer risks among multiracial youth. The number of substance-using friends was the most consistently significant correlate and predictor of problems and was highest among multiracial youth. However, interaction tests did not provide consistent evidence of a stronger influence of peer risks among multiracial youth. Findings underscore the importance of a differentiated understanding of vulnerability in order to better target prevention and intervention efforts as well as the need for further research that can help identify and explain the unique experiences and vulnerabilities of multiracial youth.


Choi, Y., & Kim, Y.S. (2010). Acculturation and the family: Core vs. peripheral changes among Korean Americans. Journal of Studies of Koreans Abroad. 21, 135-190. (PMC3148822)



The traditional cultural characteristics are challenged and negotiated in the process of acculturation; some characteristics are discarded, others are maintained, still others may get strengthened, new characteristics from the new cultures are adopted, and possibly a new hybrid of a culture of family socialization may emerge. The focus group interviews conducted with Korean-American parents and their children attest to the complexity of this process mixed with core and peripheral changes. The study findings show that Korean-American families appear to live more distinctly in the Korean culture than the mainstream Western culture, and the parental cultural adaptation is, at least at this point, minimal. Korean immigrant parents show reluctance and resistance to change, except in some of the areas that they believe are necessary and potentially helpful to their children. Family values are core values that parents are eager to maintain and transmit to their children. Korean-American parents are also deeply concerned that their children are growing up as a racial and cultural minority, which, they believe, is likely to impede children's development and future prospects. To protect their children, parents focus quite intensely on ethnic socialization within the family - a pattern that is shared among many Asian subgroups, particularly among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant families, because they strongly believe that a clear sense of ethnic identity and the deliberate preservation of the tradition helps buffer the risks and negativities derived from being an ethnic and cultural minority in the U.S. Youth, mostly second-generation immigrants, have internalized the Korean traditional family values and behaviors, probably more than their parents think that they have - a sign of successful enculturation. Unlike parents' fears, children do not seem to suffer greatly from identity confusion. The overall responses suggest that Korean-American youth are aware of their minority status and cultural differences but have a positive and strong sense of ethnic identity as Korean-Americans, which also might be a sign of successful familial ethnic socialization.


Choi, Y. (2008). Diversity within: Subgroup differences of youth problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology. 36(3), 352-370. (PMC2475653)



This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American counterparts. Many of these differences remained after adjusting for parental education. Controlling for immigrant status explained only some of the subgroup differences. The results suggest several shortcomings to the "model minority" stereotype that is often applied to API American youth. Research and practice should not overlook the higher risk for problembehaviors among certain API American subgroups. The findings highlight the need for more resources for API Americans, especially for the API subgroups facing higher risks.



Choi, Y., He, M., & Harachi, T.W. (2008). Intergenerational cultural dissonance, family conflict, parent-child bonding, and youth antisocial behaviors among Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrant families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Special Issue titled “Asian American Youth: Exemplars of New Directions in Empirical Research.” 37(1), 85-96. (PMC2475652)



Intergenerational cultural dissonance (ICD)-a clash between parents and children over cultural values-is a frequent issue for Asian American youth. Using longitudinal data from the Cross Cultural Families Project, this study examines the mechanisms by which ICD contributes to problem behaviors, including whether ICD predicts parent-child conflict, whether parent-child conflict then has a direct effect on youth problem behavior, and whether positive bonding with parents mediates the effects of such conflict on youth problem behaviors among Vietnamese (n=164) and Cambodian (n=163) families with adolescents [average age=15.2 years (SD=1.05)]. The results from the path analyses show that, in both groups, ICD indirectly predicts problem behaviors by increasing parent-child conflict, which in turn weakens positive parent-child bonding. Interventions that target youths' perception of intergenerational cultural gaps, help them manage conflict, and help strengthen bonds with parents may prevent problem behaviors among Cambodian and Vietnamese families. This study contributes to inform how to effectively prevent problems and difficulties among these families.


Choi, Y. (2007). Academic achievement and problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 403-415. (NIHMSID# 293552)



Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement andproblem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor ofproblem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API) youth; that they can have high grades but still exhibit problem behaviors. This study finds that academic performance is a significant predictor of aggressive and nonaggressive delinquent offenses, gang initiation, sexual behaviors, and substance use, and that the relationship generally does not vary by race and ethnicity. Thus, there is little evidence that API youth are high achievers who are also engaging significantly in problem behaviors. The existing perceptions of API youth may be largely based on stereotype and ambivalence.


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